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How Shivaji Tackled Afzal Khan

In one of my previous posts, I have done analysis of the Battle of Sinhgad using game theory. Several readers mentioned they would like to read about Shivaji’s slaying of Afzal Khan analyzed in a similar way. Let me take a shot.

I don’t think game theory can be applied there as game theory deals more with choices made by people in critical moment. There was no critical moment as such in Afzal Khan episode.
And that precisely proves Shivaji’s genius.

If the battle of Sinhgad was example of tactical brilliance of a military commander, the Afzal khan slaying and the following battle of Pratapgad was a strategic masterpiece by a visionary leader.

In cricket terms, the battle of Sinhgad is like a match between some team X and team India, where team India seems to be winning, but Sachin Tendulkar is out and suddenly tides turn. But the vice captain, say, Yuvraj Singh, notices a weakness of the bowling side, which he consistently exploits, building small partnerships and evantually turns the tide and brings victory.
The Afzal Khan’s slaying by Shivaji is like a match between team Y and team South Africa, where right from the beginning, South African fielding and bowling is carefully planned for each batsman of team Y. Tight fielding allows only one run instead of two, and two in place of four. Impossible catches are converted to difficult catches, difficult catches to easy ones. The team Y gets knocked out in 70 runs and their bowlers are put under heavy pressure. Then opening batsmen of South Africa just keep the scorecard moving and easily cruise their team to 10 wickets victory. Team Y never has a chance.

History books, movies and novels have romantically emphasized the heroics that happened in the Khan-Shivaji meeting at the base of Pratapgad. However the real success is due to the everyday small victories achieved by Shivaji over a long period of time, small victories so boring in detail that no poet bothered to sing about it.

Let’s try to study the boring things that made Shivaji such an interesting leader.

When Khan landed in Deccan, he could not make a lot of friends. Because Shivaji’s generals Kanhoji Jedhe and Baji Pasalkar worked tirelessly with Jahagirdars and Watandars in the area. Using diplomacy, they made sure people did not switch sides. Khan never gained a strong foothold in the Southern Konkan and Sahyadri mountains. Make friends, win allies , build network is lesson 101 for any venture. Period.

To begin the second point, I have a question for you. Think of three or four kings other than Shivaji. Now tell me the names of their intelligence chiefs. Most probably you are shaking your head now.
Now tell me the name of Shivaji’s intelligence chief. Pretty much all of you will shout “Bahirji Naik”.
Why you know the name of only Shivaji’s intelligence chief? Because in Shivaji’s reign, the intelligence gathering was formal. The chief of intelligence was raised to the rank of Sardar and was given due importance.
Shivaji put in place a formal and extensive intelligence network which was headed by Bahirji. These spies disguised as Sadhus, street musicians, barbers worked in the dark as Shivaji’s eyes and ears. Piece by piece, word by word the information was gathered, passed on and analyzed.
In case of Afzal khan, Maratha generals knew how many soldiers Khan had, how many cannons, how much money, how much ammunition he was bringing. They knew when Khan began his journey. They knew who met Khan. They knew what messages Khan sent to headquarters. They were able to predict his next move. This allowed Shivaji to adapt, to be proactive, to focus his power where it mattered. This strong intelligence pretty much wiped out the numbers advantage Khan had in terms of soldiers, guns and ammunition.
Importance of strong intelligence cannot be overemphasized.

Thirdly, look at the details of Pratapgad and other battles very carefully and you will find something interesting. When Afzal khan was killed, Shivaji rushed on the fort again and fired cannon shots. Remember Baji Prabhu’s battle of Ghod Khind? Baji prabhu let go of the battle when he heard cannon shots. When the battle of Sinhgad ended, the first thing the soldiers did was to light a haystack in fire, which was visible to Shivaji on Shivneri fort.
There seems to be a consistent pattern here. Clear and consistent communication protocols. Seemingly small thing. But it makes a big difference.
When the Maratha army heard the cannon shots fired from Pratap gad, they knew what the signal meant. They knew the outcome of Shivaji- Afzal khan encounter before of Afzal Khan’s army found it out. They had a headstart in executing their action plan.
When Baji prabhu was holding the Horse Pass (Ghod Khind), his mission was clear. Till you hear cannon shots, do whatever it takes to protect the pass. The moment you hear shots, abandon the pass, disperse the soldiers, do not waste a single minute or a single soldier from that point on. No guesswork there. No confusions. No misunderstandings.
No matter what organization , project or relationship you are dealing with. If everybody is on the same page, and if there are no open ends to communication loops, number of mistakes will drastically reduce.

Fourth point, remember letters written by Shivaji to the guards on ammunition warehouse? He gave them clear instruction that the lamps in the warehouse should be guarded manually 24/7 to avoid chances of rats knocking them out causing explosion. This is no different than some actions of General Eisenhower, who several times insisted on making sure clean water is available to soldiers. Why? He was scared that soldiers will fall ill if they drink dirty water.
Shivaji’s had given strict instructions to keep fort doors closed at night, which forced to Hira , the milk vendor woman, to climb down the cliff when she got stranded inside. Shivaji had given orders to people not to ride horse to the Takmak-tok (a cliff called Takmak) on Raigad.
Things like this reduce accidents, reduce nasty surprises, reduce uncertainty in planning. Over a long period of time, you save a lot of soldiers and weapons if you reduce accidents. A soldier saved is a soldier gained. Also such caring attitude builds a sense of confidence in soldiers that their lives are being appreciated and will not be wasted.

Fifth point, choosing the point of escalation.
When Afzal khan entered Maharashtra, first he roamed around on Deccan plateau. He destroyed temples in an attempt to incite Shivaji. Shivaji did not escalate the matters. Khan committed atrocities. Shivaji chose not to respond. Khan attacked and conquered several forts. Shivaji kept quiet. Khan attacked Pune. Shivaji just sucked up that insult.
If there is a man who has killed your brother in the past (Khan had killed Shivaji’s brother Shambhu raje) and who comes back and one by one destroys the things you love and revere, won’t you respond in revenge? You will right? That’s why you are not Shivaji.

In spite of several people urging Shivaji to come out and save “Hindu Dharma”, Shivaji did not take any of Khan’s baits. He waited patiently for the right time. Then he sent several signals to Afzal khan indicating he was scared and is thinking about surrender. He chose the time, he chose the place where they would meet. He got Khan on home pitch of Maratha army. Shivaji did not enter Khan’s trap. He got Khan in his trap. And that point he committed the first act of violence and attack.

The planning that went into executing this escalation was impressive. When Shivaji met Khan, they met at the bottom of Pratapgad, where the geography, which consisted of hills and forests, made Khan’s cannons and elephants almost useless. The roads were few and difficult to travel fast. The Maratha’s had cut several trees partially such that on a moments notice, the trees could be pushed to break and the roads could be blocked.
Shivaji met Khan where Khan’s army was almost ineffective. He requested Khan to leave all but one bodyguards away, thus further reducing Khan’s dominating position. He came covered in armor from head to toe, taking no chances. He carefully chose his weapon. He carefully chose his bodyguard to counter Khan’s bodyguard. He left nothing to chance.
The Maratha generals were instructed to carry out battles in a specific way. They were instructed to carry out more surgical strikes rather than destructive strikes. They were instructed to first take out the generals and commanders in a quick strike to create chaos, then capture the wealth , ammunition and horses. That’s why most of the Khan’s generals were killed pretty much immediately after Khan was killed.
There was a firm plan B in place. Shivaji had left clear instructions with his mother and close insiders about what to do in case of his death. Mother Jijabai was to rule under the name of Shivaji’s son Sambhaji.
Every detail was planned carefully. Every possibility considered and every corner covered.

Same shrewdness was shown by Shivaji when he chose to attack Shahiste-Khan and when he dealt with rebel Chandrarao More from Jawali.

So, there seems to be five part strategy of Shivaji’s military adventures.
1. Build a strong network of allies.
2. Use Formal Intelligence gathering.
3. Clearly defined communication protocols to reduce misunderstandings and confusions at the last minute. (In war, every minute is the last minute.)
4. Set of rules and guidelines to keep the forces ready, safe and alert.
5. Well planned escalations rather than hot headed counter attacks.

By conceiving such brilliant strategies, Shivaji prevailed against forces much larger than him and became a legend. When he became a legend, people sang about his heroics and forgot about the strategies.

World likes a shining knight, riding a white horse, who rescues a princess, a lot more than it likes a king who carefully planned and created a safe world where the princess would not be kidnapped at all.


54 Responses

  1. Wow. Excellent article. The concluding sentence is so aptly written. Please keep writing more such articles about THE GREAT SHIVAJI MAHARAJ.

  2. […] and Shivaji became a larger than life person. Kedar says that when people sang about his heroics, they forgot about his strategies. When Afzal khan entered Maharashtra, first he roamed around on Deccan plateau. He destroyed temples […]

  3. Hey, Could you also please share the sources of information from where you have pieced together this analysis?


    • As a first step, if that is you can read Marathi, there is book “Shriman Yogi” by Ranjit Desai. Then again if you can read Marathi, there are volumes written by Riyasatkar G S Sardesai on Maratha History. As for English, you will have to check out Sir Jadu Nath Sircar and R C Majumdar. All these facts can be verified chapter and verse.

    • Read an excellent new book : Shivaji His Life And Times by Gajanan Mehendale (Param Mitra Publications).

      Please note that Dr. Mehendale is a student of Military strategy, and his study in that made him interested in studying history of Shivaji.

  4. Hello Sharad,

    Most of what I have written here is pretty much available in school history books. Some of it comes from writings of Jadunath Sarkar I read long time back.

    However you are right. I do need to provide references. Sometime soon I will get hold of the books and revise this post with citations. There might be some minor changes in details. But overall I still stand by my analysis.

    Thanks for the comment,


  5. I guess there is so very limited understanding of Shivaji’s strategic initiative that we are in danger of losing the most valuable lessons. Its great that you have started writing on this. Fantastic!


  6. Only thing you missed out is treachery of Shivaji in killing Afzal khan when he was in fact hugging Shivaji. This is the time when envoys of worst enemy were respected and treated with dignity.

    But well now it is strategy…

    • Hey,

      Didn’t Afzhal Khan try stabbing Shivaji first? It is then when Shivaji had to counter attack for which he was well prepared!


    • u idiot……strategies r strategies…had shivrai not attacked afzal khan,khan would have routed shivrai without any hesitance…

    • Afzal the barbaric invader had no legitimacy!

      Shivaji should have killed him even earlier and all his invading friends also.

  7. Hello King of Hill,

    In a similar encounter (that involved treachery, may I say) Afzal Khan had killed Shivaji’s brother. So no matter if Afzal Khan wanted to kill him or not, I think Shivaji did right thing by killing him.

    Here is a Harvard Study that proves my point.

    It talks about strategies, and the best long term strategy is Win-Stay, Lost-Shift. Meaning if you have previously co-operated and somebody did not reciprocate the co-operation, next time you should switch from co-operation to tit-for-tat.

    This Win-Stay,Lost-Shift is more important than respect and dignity. Remember Prithviraj Chauhan who showed more than necessary respect and dignity to Ghori? He ended up lost and dead.

  8. @King of Hill: As far as I remember reading, Afzal Khan struck Shivaji with a hidden dagger, though the helmet Shivaji was wearing avoided major injury (there may be a dispute over who struck first). Also, Afzal khan’s record of “peace meetings” was not exactly synonymous with honour. Shivaji had examples of Sambhaji and Shahaji in front of him.

    @Kedar: Very good analysis. Most people now-a-days either deify Shivaji and don’t learn from his life, or consider him a thing of past with same results.

    A correction: Afzal Khan was a general in service of Adilshah of Vijapur, and not Mughal Badshah of Delhi as you mention (“what messages Khan sent to headquarters in Delhi“). Also, I am not sure whether the canon shots signal was different for two outcomes, or whether the army was ordered to attack at the signal and crush Adilshahi army regardless of outcome.

    Secondly an addition, Afzal Khan was also one of the major conspirators (with Mustafa Khan) who captured Shahaji by treachery. So, it was double personal.

    Also, Shivaji followed this major victory with a pre-planned lightning campaign of around 9 months, in which he took complete advantage of chaos in Adilshahi and captured a lot of their territory. The victory run was finally stopped when Siddi Jauhar surrounded him at Panhala.

    Afzal Khan was an extremely competent general with long experience of military service, who was also familiar with the area (he was the “governer” of Wai for a long time). Which is why this victory is more important.

    OK, this is turning out to be a long one, so I will make it a post.

  9. well written…it keeps u engrossed till the end…and reminded me of my school days whn we read abt shivaji

  10. Just reading the title gave me horror stories of school; I think we spent some three years learning about Shivaji — the same things three times over.

    Was pleasantly surprised to read the post though; really enjoyed it. 🙂

  11. Forget about people forgetting about his strategies. It’s blasphemy in Maharashtra to say anything against Shivaji. Including this.

  12. Yes, it is difficult in Maharashtra to say anything against Shivaji. That is unfortunate, but that is the reality.

    That needs to be changed. We need to stop turning people into Gods.People should be able to take an objective look. That’s the only way we will learn from History.

    That’s why I have began with disregarding his heroics.

    • first say something freely against Islam in out so called secular country then talk against Shivaji in Maharashtra. I really appreciate proud Maharashtrians.

  13. great stuff dude.

    do you have any info on Shivaji’s brother Venkoji, the king of Thanjavur, Very less is known about the Bhosles in South.
    would appreciate your views.


  14. That was a nice post post kedar. I liked the way in which it was dealt. Considering all the aspects.

  15. 1st Bajirao Peshwa was great warrior after Chha. Shivaji Maharaj.
    I would like to know more about his biography and history.Please give it.

  16. […] protected them from repeated attacks by Muslim rulers. More on Shivaji’s valor and prowess here and here. Growing up in Bombay(that is how it is for me!) as a kid, I’ve heard numerous […]

  17. […] The Battle of Pratapgad was fought between the Shivaji and Afzal Khan in November 1659. Despite having fewer forces, the Marathas got their first significant victory over a regional power and Shivaji became a larger than life person. Kedar says that when people sang about his heroics, they forgot about his strategies. […]

  18. Cool …………this is gr8…….. very well written………..

    @ Ashvini Sutar

    Hey I had done a post on Gr8 king long back there i have given links to free ebook related to Chha. Shivaji Maharaj & the Maratha history in general……. i guess Vloume 2 of maratha histroy talks about Bajirao Reshwa………


  19. hey great article. shows a side of shivaji not really discussed in school i think this is the kind of stuff schools need.

  20. Kedar,

    I would like to appreciate you for the efforts taken.

    R n D in history is very much required.

    We the present generation are so called “lost”..

    One of the key reasons is WE DO NOT HAVE A HERO or ROLE MODEL to look up to…. Sharukh n Sachin can be very inspiring to be successful .. but to be a good human being and realize the importance to be socially active .. they are not of much help….

    Kind Regards,

  21. Hello Kedar, this is very well written article. I have only read it. I have to analyse it now. I wish to study in depth about Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and his strategies. Is there any source you can recommend? Kindly revert on this. Thank you.

  22. Your original article is a very good and mature attempt of analyzing this important historic event. I really like the points you made of very characteristic ‘meticulous’ planning carried out by Shivaji Maharaj and his aides. Though I haven’t read (heard him twice though) Baba Purandare’s account of this episode, so far, most of the texts and citations, only dramatize this incident. Unfortunately they dramatize it so much that it even blurs the line between truth and false praise. But your treatment was more methodical and gives balanced reasoning even for non-marathis (who may not have sufficient background on greatness of Shivaji) to appreciate Shivaji’s many great attributes.

    Please keep up,

  23. Afzal khan tomb should be removed and his grave should be thrown into the Arabian Sea so that it should not contaminate the purity of Indian soil….. Shivaji is a legand & sole hindu protector… The land of Shivaji should be cleaned.

    with regards
    Pavan Urs
    Mysore, Karnataka

    • Thats the mistake we all – as Modern Indian Citizens make- We cannot change the past by wishing it away Be it afzals tomb or the Babrimasjid.
      Why do we let emotion cloud our better judgement all the time when we confront edifices of Historical dynamics at play.
      Who would we really like to place our bets upon – a pragmatist like sivaji ?or a head in the cloud, Holier than thou Prithvi raj ?They both are imprtant figures to all indians – bcz we learn from their fate -and act accordingly – and not pass judgments based on present day social values while popping pakoras ensconsced safely and snuggly in an armchair.
      Do you think the Kargil war is justifiable as a victory to India- looking at the huge casualty that the Indians suffered. What would Shivaji have felt about it?
      Isnt Nehru a modern day Prithviraj? – who’s instincts got Blunted by his moral and idealistic idea of the world around him.
      we need every single soul or stone that reflect our past – inorder to organize our lives and that of our nation-through better judgment and effective planning.
      Thats the moral of Indian history- Its not about glorifying a Hero and lamenting the calamities that befell upon us bcz of others – Its about learning from this and becoming stronger
      and without prejudice to anyone (which is very tough)
      Nietzsche says That whatever that doesnt kill you makes you stronger- Move over couch pakoras Its time for some dynamism in our thoughts and actions

  24. Awesome man
    keep it up…

    || Jai Shivaji ||

  25. Awesome post! Thanks!

  26. hey!!

    awsme thn d mst awsme thng!!! cud i meet u in person to discuss maratha history??

    its my paper for this year!!
    kindly mail me for futhr talks

    looking forward to it!


  27. Nice post Kedar…


    To King of the Hill: Pl. read this to realise who attacked whom first:


  28. Brilliant article. Analysis of Shivaji’s strategy, governance and generalship have been brought out so well that it gives glimpses into the personality of a great king and a general. Effective communication is a key to success and to think that in those days and times, Shivaji devised means of communications tell a great deal into the modern concept of “Military Appreciation” carried out by Directors of Military Operations. That was the key to the success of Chhatrapati.

  29. Hi ,

    I read this article today and was amazed to see the corelation with stong management principles . Any high quality organisation is build up only on strong visionary leadership and hands on understanding of the environment. Nothing can be better example than the whole life span of Shivaji and his process of building up the “Swaraj”

    Thanks for putting the things together the way you have done .

  30. This post made an awesome read.

    The fourth point is especially thought provoking. Truly, a little foresight goes a long long way.

  31. Great Post. Salutations to the Maharaj.

    Can you also please expand on Shivaji’s policy on State-Craft.

  32. gr888 article … !!
    raje was truly perfectionists…!
    are thrr pdf files jadunath sirkar or mujumdar ??


  34. The article was analysed with great effort by the blogger. Good effort by him although he blamed the Mharah for treachery. As stated, Maharaj Shivaji planned everything very meticulously with utmost precision. He did not fall into a trap laid by Afzal Khan who tried to escalate passions by commiting arson and crime in Maharashtra in Shivaji maharjs domains.Shivaji knew his weakness and strengths.He prefered conflict in mountainous area where his soldiers were experts .He avoids all type engagements in plains. He lured Afzal Khan in to his chosen killing ground. This is the basic tactics in an army operation even today. Literally Afzal khan was lured in to an ambush.Shivaji maharaj can not be blamed for the death of Khan. There was no treachery on his part. maximum writings and narrations indicate that Shivaji was attacked first by the powerful khan who held Maharaj under his grip and stabbed him without success, shivaji with his secret weapon tore open the bowels and stabbed with his Bichwa.Any guy should do this.In war and love all is fair.If Shivaji did not kill Khan he would have surely killed the maharaj.Khan deserved death at all costs because he was no divine man and deserved no mercy and had to be killed . Shivaji did same and no tears are required to roll. The aspect of treachery has been negated by all. Afzal khan was very cruel and he is credited to have killed his 22 wives( some could be concubines and mistresses) before he emarked on his campaign. Can you call such a person a human being? He has to be devil and devils are to be destroyed. Even today the graves of 22 women can be seen at Afzal pura ( If I am correct about the name of the place). How could he do that to the women with whom he slept an enjoyed sex?How any sane person can accept him to be human?Afzal Khan needs all condemnation and degradation by all .Shivaji maharaj stands out rightly far above the wrteched soul.Those were the days of valor and not todays days of indecision and pseudo secularism where dangerouus men like Afzal Guru are kept in jail and fed and protected. Long live Chatrapathi Shavaji Maharaj.
    Dr K Prabhakar Rao

  35. Gr8 post. Interestingly, I believe Shri Krishna and Chanakya provided the same lessons in strategy as Shivaji did. Sadly, Prithviraj Chauhan didn’t learn anything from Krishna and Chanakya and as a result ended up dead. Krishna’s, Chanakya’s and Shivaji’s lessons have unfortunately been lost due to Gandhi-Nehru idealistic idiocy, and history is being repeated all over again. Who knows if this time a Shivaji will arrive to save the day or not…

  36. Excellent Information!!!!

    I am astonished to learn more and more new things about this Great Legend daily,when i thought i knew a much deal about Shivaji.

    I knew about 3 points in the strategy,and would love to learn more about him.What a Great strategy he had to fool such a cunning and brilliant Adilshahi general,who won many battles in his life through good strategies!!!!!!!!1

  37. I’m very impressed with your article, I’ve always been interested in military geniuses. but I’m more interested to know how Shivaji lured Afzal Khan into pratapgad and also how he convinced him to come to a meeting with Shivaji on his own terms. Can you tell me some good books which I can read on these topics?

  38. Hi,
    If I could, I would practically applaud the great blogging you have been doing, what must be said in precise and scintillating manner, what all is obscured by contemporary and the British Historians alike who profess singular right to educate & in the name of Secularism.

    I remember reading somewhere that a Golden Bowl covers truth always. In Bharata, we Bharatiya should enjoy both the truth and the Golden Bowl, both neti neti and iti iti (this too-that too & neither this-nor that), in what is rightfully is native for natives.

    Please don’t fall into the trap of explaining why Shivaji did this or that, considering an invader feigning civility is not an excuse for anything. An Invader is just an invader, outside realm of Civilized lifestyle.


  39. the war and battle are proactive. the war is won not in the battle field. this like a ceo of business. some people ask why do we need to pay more for ceo. the reality is your understanding of your enemy is importent. pritwiraj did not have much understanding. he fought like a lion. shivaji fought like tiger. he chose to fall down on ground for defence and counter attack like a tiger. this should be applied to rajyoga practice. the maya come like wind. once you understand this thought is waste thought then you will be able to pay no attention to such bad or usless thought. thoughts are time consuming too. it is all created when shivaji was a begger. and he used his intelect properly when he did the rajyoga. and he became perfect king. where as mugals did not do proper raja yoga and you can see they are using 108 mala for prayer . where as shivaji is abouve prayer. he does not need 108 mala. he is the real mala…………

  40. for example if you can see in geetha it is said man mano bhav………… this is ultimate rajyoga…………in rajyog you the soul control the breat. where as in hath yog you think you are body and your breath control the mind. you may ask why do you compare this two yoga with an islamic king and hindu king. ( if you really look into indian history we have all the seed of the world religion in hinduism). which according to prajapitha brahma kumari it is in the brahmin family. and baba virendra dev diksit said 108 means 12 importent seed like souls of 9 religion. where as he said although they are diety for half a kalpa. when islam comes second narayana or diety king will accept islam. third one will accept budhism. fourth one will aceept christianity and fifth one will accept muslim(muhammed nor abrahamic islam). then shankracharya and then sikhism. even in this ordern shankaracharya the creator sanyasi religion and sikh religion both are swadeshi.( but in the end influence of videshi dharm come into the intelect of all 33 crore brahmins. according to the teaching these are most importent souls. however amoung them there are one clan called suryavamshi which will never get converted and always fight for the protection of dharma.( and you can add shivaji to it). i firmly believe ram bap soul probably is shivaji mahadev. because ram bap also continue to take birth and rebirth. so you can see the even amoung the 33 crore which is diamond and which is adultered. ( in reality is not the war against islam. it is the war against our own hindu dieties who get converted).if you want to have more understanding you should take 7 day course at farukabad or nearest pbks geetha patashala. which you dont get in brahmakumari shcool. for more information go to http://www.pbks.info. when they say the drama is 5 thousand years do not think ohh it is wrong. it is also possible between one drama to other drama could be billions of years old. ( in this teaching nothing is given clear cut) because baba says i am giving you the knowledge and you must charn out the clear answer. some are diety soul easily get converted when eglend people come from europe. but such people can come back to hinduism and he will never like shivaji as a hero. ( just like many hindus did not explore vedas. it is same with brahma kumaris). unfortunately the mugal souls also in this drama and they cut and paste knowledge for their benefit. this is very interesting study . please visit nearest centre and take course.( the critick website is also called brahmakumariinfo

  41. There is so much to be learnt from the great King. If only we can implement it effectively to counter the challenges in our life.

  42. Shivaji Raje u r d “King of Kings”.u wl b remembered for ever as a great HINDUSTHANI n HINDU KING.

  43. U proved dat u r a great leader.u r my idol raje n u r d “KING OF KINGS”

  44. Chhathrapathi, you are the pride of Hindustan. We cherish your

  45. Congrat’s for doing such a job,personally i liked this artical because the angel & the view you look to incedence accuracy is more.Shivaji maharaj is a legend & remains legend forever.keep it up & post more blog’s.
    -Dr.Manepatil B R

  46. Reblogged this on Hindu Internet Defence Force.

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